Saddam Hussein Regime Collection

Saddam Hussein

Saddam Hussein

The collection of records from Saddam Hussein’s regime consist of a wide range of government files — audio recordings of high-level meetings, speeches by Saddam and senior officials, correspondence between ministries, records of the Presidential Diwan, and others—that bear mainly on issues related to national security, defense policy, and diplomacy.  The CRRC currently houses copies of over 930 Iraqi state records constituting over 52,000 pages of Arabic originals and full English translations. The collection also includes 200 hours of recorded conversations between Saddam and his top officials. The archive only includes documents dated prior to 9 April 2003.

Collection Summary and Index

These records are categorized by their originating agency or office (for instance, Iraqi Intelligence Service or General Military Intelligence Directorate), and will eventually constitute the vast majority of CRRC holdings.
Saddam Hussein Collection Summary and Index

Sample Records

Digital copies of captured records are provided below, along with full English translations and summaries.  These records provide only a small sample of the much larger collection that is available to researchers at the CRRC.

    1. Records released in conjunction with the workshop Deterring New Nuclear Weapons States? Organized jointly by the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars and Stanford University’s Center for International Security and Cooperation (CISAC), held 3 June 2013 in Washington, DC.
    2. Records released in conjunction with the 54th annual convention of the International Studies Association (ISA), held 3-6 April 2013 in San Francisco, CA.
    3. Records released in conjunction with the CRRC-organized roundtable “Saddam and Terrorism” at the 53rd annual convention of the International Studies Association, held 3 April 2012 in San Diego, CA.
    4. Records released in conjunction with the 45th annual meeting of the Middle East Studies Association (MESA), held 1-4 December 2011, in Washington, DC.
    5. Records released in conjunction with the CRRC-Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars “The Iran-Iraq War” conference, held 25-27 October 2011 at the Woodrow Wilson Center, Washington DC.
    6. Records released in support of the Texas A&M University Scowcroft Institute’s 20th Anniversary Commemoration of the Beginning of Military Operations to Liberate Kuwait, held 20 January 2011.

 

Records released in conjunction with the workshop Deterring New Nuclear Weapons States? Organized jointly by the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars and Stanford University’s Center for International Security and Cooperation (CISAC), held 03 June 2013 in Washington, DC.

 

SH-IZAR-D-001-490, “Military Manual on the Tactical Use of WMD, Vol. 2 Part 2,” 22 Jan 1987, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Record for SH-IZAR-D-001-490

 

SH-MICN-D-000-741, “Correspondence between the MIC and the Petro Chemical Group Regarding a Letter from A.Q. Khan Offering Assistance in Developing Iraq’s Nuclear Weapons Program,” 06 Oct 1990, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Record for SH-MICN-D-000-741

 

SH-MISC-D-000-827, “Saddam and Senior Iraqi Officials Discussing the Conflict with Iran, Iraqi Targets and Plans, a Recent Attack on the Osirak Reactor, and Various Foreign Countries,” 1 Oct 1980, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Record for SH-MISC-D-000-827

 

SH-MISC-V-001-426, “Meeting between UN Biological Inspectors and Iraqi Officials Including Dr. Rihab Taha,” Circa 1993 to 1998, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Audio for SH-SHTP-A-001-426

 

SH-MODX-D-001-291, “A Report on Iranian Efforts to Obtain Nuclear Weapons,” 01 Jan 1992, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Record for SH-MODX-D-001-291

 

SH-PDWN-D-000-341, “Transcript of a Speech Given by Saddam Hussein on „The Role of the Iraqi Armed Forces in the Arab-Zionist Conflict‟ at Al-Bakr University,” 3 June 1978, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Record for SH-PDWN-D-000-341

 

SH-RPGD-D-001-454, “Training Documentation Pertaining to Nuclear, Chemical, and Biological Threats to the Republican Guard and Iraq,” 16 Oct 2000, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Record for SH-RPGD-D-001-454

 

SH-SHTP-A-000-553, “Revolutionary Command Council Meeting after the Baghdad Conference of 1979,” 27 Mar 1979, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Audio for SH-SHTP-A-000-553

 

SH-SHTP-A-000-635, “Saddam Meeting with His Cabinet to Discuss the 1982 Budget,” Circa 1982, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Audio for SH-SHTP-A-000-635

 

SH-SHTP-A-000-732, “Meeting between Saddam and Political Advisors Regarding Hostilities with Israel, Iraqi Defense Capabilities, and Iraqi-Syrian Relations,” 25 Jan 1995, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Audio for SH-SHTP-A-000-732

 

SH-SHTP-A-000-789, “Meeting between Saddam Hussein and the Revolutionary Council Regarding the Sanctions Placed on Iraq and Tariq Aziz’s Trip to the UN Security Council,” Circa 08 Nov 1995 to 28 Dec 1995, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Audio for SH-SHTP-A-000-789

 

SH-SHTP-A-000-835, “Saddam and His Advisers Discussing Iraq’s Decision to Go to War with Iran,” 16 September 1980, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Audio for SH-SHTP-A-000-835

 

SH-SHTP-A-001-011, “Meeting between Saddam and His Security Council Regarding Iraqi Biological and Nuclear Weapons Program,” 05 Feb 1995, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Audio for SH-SHTP-A-001-011

 

SH-SHTP-A-001-042, “Saddam Hussein and the Revolutionary Command Council Discussing the Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait and the Expected U.S. Attack,” 15 Jan 1991, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Audio for SH-SHTP-A-001-042

 

SH-SHTP-A-001-043, “A Revolutionary Command Council Meeting about Coalition Operations against Iraq,” 18 Jan 1991, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Audio for SH-SHTP-A-001-043

 

SH-SHTP-A-001-202, “Saddam Hussein Meeting with the General Command of the Armed Forces Regarding Iraqi Development and Defense Theory,” Circa Jan 1996 to Jun 1996, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Audio for SH-SHTP-A-001-202

 

SH-SHTP-A-001-251, “Meeting between Saddam Hussein and Top Political Advisors about a United Nations Air Survey Request,” Undated, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Audio for SH-SHTP-A-001-251

 

SH-SHTP-A-001-254, “Meeting between Saddam Hussein and Top Political Advisors Concerning Diplomacy with the United States and Russia,” Undated, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Audio for SH-SHTP-A-001-254

 

SH-SHTP-A-001-256, “Meeting between Saddam Hussein and Top Political Advisors to Discuss a Visit by Prime Minister Tariq Aziz to the United Nations,” Circa 1994, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Audio for SH-SHTP-A-001-256

 

SH-SHTP-A-001-295, “Saddam Meeting with Ba’ath Party Members to Discuss the Results of the UN Inspectors’ Mission to Look for WMD,” 19 Jun 1995, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.

SH-SHTP-A-001-400, “Meeting between Saddam Hussein and His Cabinet Discussing a Plan to Develop Iraqi Cities,” Undated, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Audio for SH-SHTP-A-001-400

 

SH-SHTP-A-001-458, “Meeting between Saddam Hussein and His Officials after the First Gulf War,” 16 Dec 1991, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Audio for SH-SHTP-A-001-458

 

SH-SHTP-A-001-480, “Meeting between Saddam Hussein and His Senior Advisors Following the Israeli Attack on Osirak,” Circa 1981, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Audio for SH-SHTP-A-001-480

 

SH-SHTP-A-001-492, “Cabinet Meeting with Saddam Hussein and the Atomic Energy Committee,” Undated, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Audio for SH-SHTP-A-001-492

 

SH-SHTP-D-000-856, “Transcript of a Meeting between Saddam Hussein and the Armed Forces General Command,” 22 November 1980, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Record for SH-SHTP-D-000-856

 

SH-SHTP-V-001-237, “Meeting between Saddam Hussein and His Military Commanders after the First Gulf War,” Undated, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Audio for SH-SHTP-A-001-237

 

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Records released in conjunction with the 54th annual convention of the International Studies Association (ISA), held 3-6 April 2013, in San Francisco, CA.

 

SH-SHTP-A-001-207, “Saddam and Ba’ath Party members discussing Iraqi laws, pardons, and various other issues including a meeting with U.S. Congressman Bill Richardson,” 22 Jul 1995, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Audio for SH-SHTP-A-001-207

 

SH-SHTP-D-001-500, “Transcript of a meeting between Saddam Hussein and U.S. Congressman Bill Richardson,” 16 Jul 1995, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Record for SH-SHTP-D-001-500

 

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Records released in conjunction with the CRRC-organized roundtable “Saddam and Terrorism” at the 53rd annual convention of the International Studies Association, held 3 April 2012 in San Diego, CA.

 

SH-FSDM-D-001-077, “Fedayeen Saddam instructions regarding planning and preparing for operations, including personnel selection, mission planning and coordination, assassinations, and bombings,” 25 May 1999, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Record for SH-FSDM-D-001-077

 

SH-FSDM-D-001-081, “Letters from the Secretariat Office of the Fedayeen Saddam regarding volunteers for martyrdom operations,” 7 Oct 2000, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Record for SH-FSDM-D-001-081

 

SH-FSDM-D-001-418, “Memoranda from the Secretariat Office of Fedayeen Saddam concerning membership requests from individuals of Sudanese and Yemini origin,” 24 Aug 2002, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Record for SH-FSDM-D-001-418

 

SH-IISX-D-000-475, “Iraqi Intelligence Service investigative reports regarding failed bombing attempts against the residence of the U.S. Ambassador in Jakarta, Japanese Embassy, and American Airlines in the Philippines,” Jan 1992 to Mar 1994, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Record for SH-IISX-D-000-475

 

SH-IISX-D-000-767, “Document regarding financial support from the Iraqi Intelligence Service to Palestinian organizations, including Hamas,” 3 Apr 2002, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Record for SH-IISX-D-000-767

 

SH-IISX-D-001-105, “Correspondence within the Iraqi Intelligence Service regarding scientific ideas to produce viruses and germs to pollute the water tanks of U.S. Forces in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia,” 22 Oct 2000, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Record for SH-IISX-D-001-105

 

SH-IISX-D-001-118, “Letter from the Iraqi Intelligence Service to the Director of the al-Ghafiqi Project regarding a review of the annual plan for the year 2000,” 12 Mar 2000, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Record for SH-IISX-D-001-118

 

SH-SHTP-A-001-037, “Meeting between Saddam Hussein, Iraqi officials, Yasser Arafat, and a Palestinian delegation,” 19 Apr 1990, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Audio for SH-SHTP-A-001-037

 

SH-SHTP-A-001-440, “Saddam Hussein meeting with his ministers, his son Qusay, and Abid al-Tikriti,” undated (circa 1993), Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, DC.
Original Audio for SH-SHTP-A-001-440

 

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Records released in conjunction with the 45th annual meeting of the Middle East Studies Association (MESA), held 1-4 December 2011, in Washington, DC.

 

SH-PDWN-D-000-341, “Transcript of a speech given by Saddam Hussein on ‘The role of the Iraqi Armed Forces in the Arab-Zionist Conflict’ at al-Bakr University,” 3 Jun 1978, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Record for SH-PDWN-D-000-341

This document is a transcript of a speech by Saddam Hussein at al-Bakr University about the Iraqi military’s role in countering Zionism. Saddam states that Iraq’s acquisition of nuclear weapons will facilitate aggression against Israel.

 

SH-AADF-D-000-396, “A 1991 dossier on the role of the Iraqi Air Force in the Gulf War,” 5 Nov 1991, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Record for SH-AADF-D-000-396

This document is a dossier discussing the role of the Iraqi Air Force in the Gulf War, and includes a description of the battlefield, and the planning, preparation, and management of the war. Additionally, there is a section on electronic warfare with conclusions and recommendations.

 

SH-SHTP-D-000-856, “Transcript of a meeting between Saddam Hussein and the Armed Forces General Command,” Circa Nov 1980, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Record for SH-SHTP-D-000-856

This document is a transcript of a meeting between Saddam Hussein and the Armed Forces General Command focusing on the Iran-Iraq War and Iraqi regional affairs. In the meeting, Saddam Hussein also discusses the Arab-Israeli conflict and the importance of nuclear weapons for Israel’s deterrence capability.

 

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Records released in conjunction with the CRRC-Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars “The Iran-Iraq War” conference, held 25-27 October 2011 at the Woodrow Wilson Center, Washington DC.

 

SH-SHTP-A-000-835, “Saddam and his advisers discussing Iraq’s decision to go to war with Iran,” 16 Sep 1980, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Audio for SH-SHTP-A-000-835

In this audio file, from the beginning of the Iran-Iraq War, Saddam and his advisers discuss recent Iraqi attacks on Iranian border posts, Iraqi political and military objectives, varying levels of anticipated support from the Soviet Union, Arab states, and the United States, and worst-case scenarios for the brewing conflict. Saddam expresses repeated desire to limit the conflict but recognizes that Iran might choose to expand the fighting.

 

SH-GMID-D-001-125, “Letter of General Military Intelligence Directorate about Iranian use of chemical weapons on Iraqi troops,” 14 Apr 1987, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.

*For a text-recognizable PDF of this record, please visit the Iran-Iraq War Collection from the Cold War International History Project’s Digital Archive.

Original Record for SH-GMID-D-001-125

 

SH-SHTP-A-000-910, “Meeting between Saddam and senior Iraqi officials discussing the execution of British journalist Farzad Bazoft, modifications to Iraq’s constitution, and an Israeli attack on Iraq’s nuclear reactor,” Circa 7 Jun 1981 to 1989, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Audio for SH-SHTP-A-000-910

 

SH-SHTP-A-000-635, “Saddam meeting with his cabinet to discuss the 1982 budget,” Circa 1982, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Audio for SH-SHTP-A-000-635

 

SH-SHTP-A-001-167, “Saddam and Ba’ath Party members discussing the status of the Party in the Arab world and potential cooperation with the Muslim Brotherhood,” 24 Jul 1986, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Audio for SH-SHTP-A-001-167

In this audio file, Saddam Hussein tells his advisers that Iraq will fight Islamist opposition groups in other countries if these groups attack Ba’ath cells, take control of the state, or come close to doing so; otherwise, he emphasizes, party members should avoid conflict with such groups. This record demonstrates Saddam’s “revolutionary pragmatism.” Although the Ba’ath party was secular, Saddam was willing to make common cause with Islamist groups in the face of common enemies and in pursuit of common objectives.

 

SH-SHTP-D-000-559, “Saddam and his inner circle discussing relations with various Arab states, Russia, China, and the United States,” Circa 04 Nov 1979 to 20 Nov 1979, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Audio for SH-SHTP-D-000-559

 

SH-PDWN-D-000-730, “Transcript of an Armed Forces General Command meeting on the Iran-Iraq War and Al-Faw,” 26 May 1988, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.

*For a text-recognizable PDF of this record, please visit the Iran-Iraq War Collection from the Cold War International History Project’s Digital Archive.

Original Record for SH-PDWN-D-000-730

 

SH-SHTP-A-000-555, “Saddam and his advisers discussing Reagan’s speech to the nation on “Irangate” (Iran-Contra) Revelations (part 2),” 15 Nov 1986, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Audio for SH-SHTP-A-000-555

 

SH-PDWN-D-001-021, “Transcripts of meetings between Saddam and senior Iraqi officials discussing military tactics during the war with Iran, including the use of napalm and cluster bombs, tank maneuvering, and attacking oil refineries,” 6 Oct 1980, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.

*For a text-recognizable PDF of this record, please visit the Iran-Iraq War Collection from the Cold War International History Project’s Digital Archive.

Original Record for SH-PDWN-D-001-021

 

SH-MISC-D-000-827, “Saddam and senior Iraqi officials discussing the conflict with Iran, Iraqi targets and plans, a recent attack on the Osirak reactor, and various foreign countries,” Oct 1980, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.

*For a text-recognizable PDF of this record, please visit the Iran-Iraq War Collection from the Cold War International History Project’s Digital Archive.

Original Record for SH-MISC-D-000-827

This file contains a transcript of a meeting between Saddam Hussein and senior Iraqi officials shortly after the start of the Iran-Iraq War. The participants discuss military preparations to resist Iranian raids by conducting air and sea attacks and a suspected Israeli attack against the Osirak Reactor.

 

SH-GMID-D-000-842, “General Military Intelligence Directorate report assessing political, military, and economic conditions in Iran,” Jan 1980 to Jun 1980, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.

*For a text-recognizable PDF of this record, please visit the Iran-Iraq War Collection from the Cold War International History Project’s Digital Archive.

Original Record for SH-GMID-D-000-842

 

SH-SHTP-D-000-847, “Transcript of a meeting between Saddam and his commanders regarding the Iran-Iraq War,” Circa 1980 to 1990, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.

*For a text-recognizable PDF of this record, please visit the Iran-Iraq War Collection from the Cold War International History Project’s Digital Archive.

Original Record for SH-SHTP-D-000-847

 

SH-SHTP-A-001-023, “Saddam and his advisers discussing the importance of morale, mobilizing popular support, and targeting Iranian cities,” 06 Mar 1987, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Audio for SH-SHTP-A-001-023

 

SH-SHTP-A-000-788, “Saddam and senior advisers discussing Iraq’s stance toward international law, relations with Turkey, Kurdish autonomy, and other issues,” Circa Jun 1988 to Jul 1988, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Audio for SH-SHTP-A-000-788

 

SH-SHTP-A-000-561, “Saddam and his inner circle discussing the United Nations, the Soviet Union, and the United States,” Circa Apr 1988, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Audio for SH-SHTP-A-000-561

 

SH-SHTP-A-000-556, “Saddam discussing Iran-Contra (“Irangate”) revelations with his inner circle,” Circa Jul 1986 to Dec 1986, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original RAudio for SH-SHTP-A-000-556

 

SH-AFGC-D-000-731, “Transcripts from three audio files of a meeting of the General Command of the Armed Forces,” 24 Mar 1988, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.

* For a text-recognizable PDF of this record, please visit the Iran-Iraq War Collection from the Cold War International History Project’s Digital Archive.

Original Record for SH-AFGC-D-000-731

 

SH-SHTP-A-000-851, “Saddam and high-ranking officials discussing Khomeini, the Ethiopian-Eritrean conflict, the potential for Kurdish unrest, and the Iranian economy,” 20 Feb 1979, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Audio for SH-SHTP-A-000-851

 

SH-PDWN-D-000-552, “Arms agreements between Iraq and the Soviet Union signed in 1981 and 1983,” 1981 to 1989, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.

*For a text-recognizable PDF of this record, please visit the Iran-Iraq War Collection from the Cold War International History Project’s Digital Archive.

Original Record for SH-PDWN-D-000-552

 

SH-GMID-D-000-898, “General Military Intelligence Directorate memos on Iran’s chemical weapons capability and alleged use,” Oct 1987-Sep 1988, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.

*For a text-recognizable PDF of this record, please visit the Iran-Iraq War Collection from the Cold War International History Project’s Digital Archive.

Original Record for SH-GMID-D-000-898

Although Iraq’s government publicly alleged that Iran engaged in wide-scale chemical weapon strikes on Iraqi troops, these General Military Intelligence Directorate memoranda indicate that Iranian chemical weapon use was limited, if it occurred at all. This record contributes to the longstanding debate over whether Iran used chemical weapons during the conflict.

 

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Records released in support of the Texas A&M University Scowcroft Institute’s 20th Anniversary Commemoration of the Beginning of Military Operations to Liberate Kuwait, held 20 January 2011.

The CRRC released translations of captured audio files of three meetings between Saddam Hussein and his inner circle. All three meetings took place on 24 February 1991, as Saddam and his advisors reacted to the onset of the Coalition’s ground campaign to liberate Kuwait. These records provide a window into Saddam’s reactions to the ground attack, the information and counsel he received as events unfolded, and Iraqi plans to garner domestic and international support.

 

SH-SHTP-A-000-630, “1991 State Command and Council Meeting Discussing the Russian Peace Proposal and Communications between Saddam and Gorbachev,” 24 Feb 1991, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Audio for SH-SHTP-A-000-630

This record appears to begin in the early morning hours of 24 February, as the leadership received the first reports of Coalition assaults. In this meeting the Iraqis read and analyzed recent correspondence with Gorbachev. Saddam noted that he accepted Gorbachev’s peace proposal and expressed concern that his acceptance did not reach Moscow in time. In a letter from Gorbachev, the Soviet leader advised Saddam to clearly state his intention to immediately and unconditionally withdraw from Kuwait.

 

SH-SHTP-A-000-666,”Saddam Hussein and Iraqi Officials Discussing a US-led Attack on Faylakah Island and the Condition of the Iraqi Army,” 24 Feb 1991, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Audio for SH-SHTP-A-000-666

This record addresses many of the same issues as the first. Saddam and his advisors complained that the Soviet Union allowed the United States to initiate a ground war against Iraq in the middle of negotiations over the Soviet peace proposal. Advisors encouraged Saddam to “embarrass” the Soviets into providing support for Iraq by emphasizing the U.S. rejection of Gorbachev’s peace proposal and the U.S. president’s allegedly “deceitful” actions. Saddam and his advisors also discussed how to rally the support of the Iraqi people and other Arab nations.

 

SH-SHTP-A-000-931, “Saddam Hussein Meeting with Advisors Regarding the American Ground Attack During First Gulf War, Garnering Arab and Iraqi Support, and a Letter to Gorbachev,” 24 Feb 1991, Conflict Records Research Center, Washington, D.C.
Original Audio for SH-SHTP-A-000-931

This record is the final available segment of the 24 February deliberations. In this meeting Iraq’s Deputy Prime Minister, Tariq Aziz, shared information on his recent talks with senior Soviet officials. Saddam, as in the other recordings, expressed conviction that Gorbachev had betrayed Iraq by misleading Iraqi leaders into thinking that peace was at hand. Saddam and his advisors suggested that Iraq’s acceptance of the Soviet ceasefire proposal caused President Bush to rush the ground assault against Iraqi troops in Kuwait. They also discussed the prospects for an Iraqi withdrawal and why they destroyed Kuwaiti oil installations.

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